Bio-Architecture & Bio-Construction


Natural heating
The rectangular building faces south with its longest side, where they insist most of the openings and where there is a porch That Allows summer shading windows and walls of the ground floor without Depriving Themselves of the winter sun.
In the winter months, since the angle of incidence of the sun very low, the arcade still Allows good natural light and heating of the walls and windows of the Latter Increased by closing the perimeter of the porch in the winter through the windows That Involves Affixing the formation of a storage volume of solar heat as the roof of the porch with a good thermal insulation.
The protection from the wind is partially made from plants to trees (laurel, olive trees) located in the south-west towards the valley where the winds are channeled towards the west, while the main building is protected by a rural building site in parallel with similar high Just a few meters to the south porch of the winter closure Substantially participates in this defense.

Natural light
Most of the windows are distributed on three walls completely open to the countryside and then enjoy the natural light Throughout the duration of the day, while on the opposite wall, adjoining the farm building to insist on a few openings for ventilation or sanitation Already illuminated environments by other openings.
The most environments, including services, are provided with natural lighting in quantities greater than the minimum permitted by the ratio between the surfaces of the rooms and Those of its openings.

Natural Conditioning
The structure is designed to defend from the summer heat with porches on the facades being the sunniest and the west wall (Generally blackberries Attacked by the solar heat) is protected from adjacent rural building Placed parallel to the distance of only ml.3.50 and so thoroughly in the shade on summer afternoons.
The roof slab, Entirely made of wood, was built with natural ventilation (ventilated roof) for summer comfort of housing units in the attic.
The accommodation is located at the top of a hill (400 meters in altitude), which faces towards the Sibillini Mountains in the summer is so frequently exposed to currents of fresh air from the nearby mountains.
All openings are protected from the summer sun, some with porches, some with external dimming systems (wooden shutters).

The building is made of stone and brick masonry bearing know the Majority of the rooms are divided among Themselves and towards the external walls of medium thickness equal to cm. 50 with excellent sound insulation.
Even the fixtures reduces the transmission of noise being made of wood and fitted with double glazed windows.
The accommodation, though far enough away from roads and noise from external sources, has performed Numerous plantings (not yet adults) with the aim of creating green barriers not only to improve the privacy and natural climate and appearance but Also to break down any noises from the outside is in the opposite direction.

Building Materials
The primary objective in the restoration of the farmhouse was to maintain the original structures, Therefore, special attention was paid to Maintaining the traditional rural building elements including where, for operational requirements, have Necessarily Been rebuilt from scratch parts of the building.
The accommodation has, like the original artifact, ground and first floors to all-natural construction elements including floor plan Consisting of the main beams in the traditionally strong essence wood (oak, elm) and decking made of wooden beams and terracotta tiles of clay.
The existing vertical and horizontal structural elements have undergone conservation and renewal, where Necessary, to Particular problems of instability or functional changes, Have Been subject to removal and reconstruction through the replacement of the dilapidated and the use of traditional techniques and materials and so typical of the paints.
Particular attention was paid to the choice of materials for the building work Has Been used lime-based mortar That is consolidated to the existing finishes of the wall hangings and terracotta elements especially for remanufactured parts (roof tiles recovered from the demolition).
With regard to reducing the amount of energy embodied in the materials used, choices were made the Following:
– The wood was used for the reconstruction of the structural elements of the floors and decks, for lintels;
– The arcades are Entirely made of wood;
– The exterior and interior are made of solid wood;
– Thermal insulation panels cork was used.



The current state and the natural materialsThe building colonial subject of the recovery had already been subjected, as in the vast majority of old rural buildings of our country, to more alterations distributed over at least a century.The original building, consisting of load-bearing walls made ​​from local sandstone and terracotta bricks, tied with coarse sand and lime mortar was first expanded on the west side (late nineteenth century) using the same materials and construction techniques, then raised in the body of the building original (50s) with brick, extruded and bonded with cement mortar with the formation of a new floor in brick.The same action was taken or expected to be restored (given the eterogenietà materials used) the outdoor oven place on the northwest corner.Therefore, the artifact appeared to ground and first floors made ​​of entirely natural elements including reinforced concrete floors made ​​traditionally from the main beams in wood essence strong (oak, elm) and scaffold formed by wooden beams and terracotta pianellato.

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The objectives of the recovery

The primary objective of the recovery has been to maintain the original structures as far as possible with new interventions aimed to meet the functional needs of the farm.
Therefore, particular attention has been paid to the recovery of traditional rural building elements where, for functional requirements, have necessarily been rebuilt from scratch parts of buildings.
“Recover” means primarily “reuse” however applying all the tricks to get healthy and living spaces in compliance with the regulations, so the ground floor rooms are all equipped with ventilated shafts is under the floors to the walls with the ground.



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The design approach

The design has been addressed mainly to the reutilization of the building to get mini-apartments, single rooms, reception area and toilet facilities necessary for the work related farm.
By studying the distribution of individual housing units, seeking independence, and “privacy” in compliance with the existing architectural elements have been obtained by nine units in total absence of ‘”building effect” for both the formal outward appearance of the building that has remained virtually unchanged for both the internal dislocation of the same unit.
Another characteristic of the design is the creation of spaces for individual and outdoor covered dining or living room, provided by most of the minialloggi in order to be able to better enjoy the surrounding landscape dominated by the Monti Sibillini.
One of the rooms has been designed for people with disabilities with the complete removal of architectural barriers external and internal. 

 The recovery of the existing structures 

The structural elements existing vertical and horizontal have been the subject of conservative reorganization and, where necessary, for particular problems of instability or functional change, were subjected to disassembly and reconstruction through the replacement of the elements crumbling and the utilization of traditional techniques and materials so typical of green building.


The reconstruction of the non-originating

When you retrieve a rural building completely changing the use and especially when this has been designed and built to meet uses and requirements that belong to the past, is pure utopia apply the full restoration unless you want to build a museum of tradition .
Basic is still the identification of all the architectural elements essential to preserve the unique characteristics and typical of the original artifact, regardless of the functional needs that should be subject to formal ones.
In our case, the most recently built building (the raising of the ’50s) has been renovated with a slight further elevation in order to derive the attic, once used as a barn housing units.
The stairs to the upper floors, while remaining part of the original position, releasing it, however, was completely rebuilt from inside the building to get to a location outside (but covered porches) that allows access to the units’ housing complex and pleasant enhancing the perception of the place outside and inside glimpses through interesting visual.

The green building materials

Particular attention was paid to the choice of materials for the building work has been used lime-based mortar for both the consolidation and for the finishing of the walls and terracotta elements existing new or retrieved (depending on the aesthetic needs), especially for the rebuilt parts.
The wood was used for the reconstruction of the structural elements of the floors, lintels, the arcades and it was all impregnated with completely natural.
The exterior and interior are made of solid wood without the use of chemical adhesives containing materials such as plywood, particle board and the like.
For the thermal insulation of the roof and the stonework has been used cork panels while the interior and exterior plaster and their paintings are completely natural lime for maximum breathability and health building.
The floor covering is made of wood, was built with natural ventilation system (ventilated roof) for summer comfort of housing units in the attic, thus avoiding the use of unhealthy and environmentally sustainable air conditioners.
In the final analysis all the materials used belong to green building except the exhaust pipes and the few structural elements of reinforced concrete (slab stairs, curbs roof, formation of shafts) prescribed by the regulations on construction in seismic areas.

The end result

There would be no need to admit that the product obtained by the intervention of restructuring is quite different, especially functionally, from the old farmhouse that we started at the same time but we can argue that the result obtained from the constant attention in the recovery aesthetic-typologically ago that the building remains perfectly integrated into the surrounding environment and that every detail exterior and interior projecting the user in history, the landscape and in the tradition of our land.

                                                                                                                           (arch. Alberto Cespi)